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Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. vary significantly, ranging from 1 million to 18 million.
After the colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for United States citizenship.
and from there migrating along the Pacific Coast and into the interior.
Linguists, anthropologists and archeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians.
Their villages were constructed with large multi-family dwellings, used seasonally.
People did not live there year round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.
They carried out strong resistance to American incursions in the decades after the American Civil War, in a series of "Indian Wars", which were frequent up until the 1890s. forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, and established reservations for them in many western states. Contemporary Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States. citizens were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States.
The coming of the transcontinental railroad increased pressures on the western tribes. Their societies and cultures flourish within a larger population of descendants of immigrants (both voluntary and slave): African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples. Further information: Settlement of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, and Pre-Columbian era Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
These were complex nomadic cultures based on using horses and traveling seasonally to hunt bison. agents encouraged Native Americans to adopt European-style farming and similar pursuits, but the lands were often too poor to support such uses.
or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.