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These are the surfaces that we can get absolute ages for.
For the others, one can only use relative age dating (such as counting craters) in order to estimate the age of the surface and the history of the surface.
Once the half life of an isotope and its decay path are known, it is possible to use the radioactive decay for dating the substance (rock) it belongs to, by measuring the amount of parent and daughter contained in the sample.
An important point is that we must have an idea of how much of the daughter isotope was in the sample before the decay started.
While not a chemical test, the presence of carbon in a sample (like a meteorite) can be found by vaporizing the sample and passing it through a mass spectrometer.
This is also a way to get at the abundance of the various isotopes of carbon.
The amount of time it takes for an unstable isotope to decay is determined statistically by looking at how long it takes for a large number of the same radioactive isotopes to decay to half its original amount.
This can be interpreted in two ways: why it is important to know the age of a planet or how is age dating important in determining the age of a planet?Carbon is unreactive with a number of common lab substances: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, or any of the alkalis.It does burn in oxygen, and if you can pass the combusted gas through limewater, the carbon dioxide will turn the limewater milky by producing calcium carbonate.Based on our study of meteorites and rocks from the Moon, as well as modeling the formation of planets, it is believed (pretty much well-established) that all of the objects in the Solar System formed very quickly about 4.56 billion years ago.
When we age date a planet, we are actually just dating the age of the surface, not the whole planet.
We have rocks from the Moon (brought back), meteorites, and rocks that we know came from Mars.